Shopping Cart
No items added.
Blog archive


From How much difference we have to Wear The Ihram?

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.


As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.


According to the Hanafi Madhab, principally, you cannot travel from Riyaadh to Makkah without wearing the Ihraam, even if you only intend performing Salaah and Tawaaf. It is necessary to enter into the state of Ihraam from the Meeqaat and perform Umrah or Hajj.[6]

These answers are in accordance with the Hanafi Madhab.

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Maulana Mahmood Patel
Azaadville, South Africa

Student Darul Iftaa


Checked and Approved by
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

Women's Tahaarat

1.      Can a woman enter Masjid-al-Haram/Masjid-an-Nabawi or any other mosque during her periods?

2.      In case not, what if someone has entered Masjid-al-Haram during such a condition?

3.      Some children ask their mothers why they are not offering prayers. Is it allowed if one offers prayers in these days just to make an impression on their children?


In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.


As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

  1.         A woman is not allowed to enter Masjid-al-Haram/Masjid-an-Nabawi or any other mosque during her menses.[3]
  2.         If she did enter during her menses, she will be sinful although there is no penalty on her. She should make sincere Taubah (repentance) for such an act which also entails making a firm intention not to repeat such a sin again.[4]
  3.         A woman is not allowed to offer prayers in the days of her menses even if she does not intend performing actual Salaah but only does the actions to make an impression on her children that she is performing Salaah. What she should do is make Wudhu (ablution) and only sit on her Musallah (prayer mat) or in the place she normally performs Salaah (e.g. the corner of her room or what is referred to as 'the Salaah room'). In fact, it is Mustahab (commendable) for her to do this every time she is in menses and not only when she wants to make an impression on the children.[5]
Entered unwilling Hudood-E-Haram without Ehraam

I am living and working in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia for the past 4 years. This Ramzaan we went for Umrah and stayed in Makkah till Eid. On the second day of Eid, we travelled to Jeddah and stayed for one complete day. On our way back to Riyaadh, we lost our directions and entered the Hudood-e-Haram. There are few questions regarding the above situation. 1.      Is there any penalty on us for entering Hudood-e-Haram without Ehraam? 2.      Although we didn't go to Masjid-al-Haram for Namaaz/Tawaaf, was it allowed to do so?


In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.


As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.


Answer to Question 1:

  1.    When you lost your directions on your way back to Riyaadh because of which you landed up in the area of the Haram, there is one of two possibilities:


a)     While lost, you went beyond any of the Meeqaat boundaries (i.e. in the direction away from Makkah) and thereafter re-entered and passed the Meeqaat (i.e. in the direction towards Makkah), and finally entered the boundaries of the Haram. In this case, because you were lost and thus entered the area of the Haram unintentionally, there is no penalty due on you.[1]

b)    While lost, you did not go beyond any of the Meeqaat boundaries, but remained within the Hill (i.e. that area between the Meeqaat and the area of the Haram), thereafter, you entered the area of the Haram unintentionally. In this case also, there is no penalty on you.[2]

Therefore, in any case you do not have to give any penalty for entering the Haram without Ihraam.

  1.    It is not compulsory for a person who is in Makkah to perform Salaah and Tawaaf in the Masjidul-Haraam. If you did not go to the Masjidul-Haraam for Salaah and Tawaaf, there is no sin on you and neither is there any penalty due on you.
Umrah With your children

Me my wife and 16 months son are Inshallah going on Umrah from Dubai to Makkah. We will be in state of Ihram from Dubai when we reach Mikat we make the niyat of Umrah. My son I am planning to put Ihram to him as well. My wife will be in state of Ihram I want to know can my wife clean my sons toilet etc before going for Tawaf and Saee. Is there any rule to a 16 months child in state of Ihram. Is Dam required under these circumstances. Please do let me know.

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.


As-salāmu `alaykumwa-rahmatullāhiwa-barakātuh.

We commend you on your intention to perform Umrah with your family. 

Cleaning and washing one’s child during the state of Ihram is not considered as a Jinaayah (religious crime) for which Damm (penalty) is necessary.[1]

However, we advise one to expend some charity (Sadaqah) to cover up for any deficiency that might have occurred during the Umrah.

With regards to your second question pertaining to the rules of a 16 months child in the state of Ihram: 

The wali (legal guardian) of a small child is advised to do the following:

1. To clean the child.

2. To wash him. 

3. To clothe him with the two pieces of clothing;

i) Lower garment (Izaar) 

ii) Upper garment ( Ridaa)

4. To caution him against perpetrating that which a Muhrim (person in the state of Ihraam) refrains from in the state of Ihraam.

If a small child does anything contrary to the rules of Ihraam, he will not be held responsible in any way nor will his Wali (legal guardian) be responsible. The reason being that a child is not Mukallaf (Legally obligated to follow the dictates of the Shariah).[2]  

And Allah knows best.

Moulana Ismail Desai
Durban, South Africa
Student Darul

Checked and Concurred
Moulana Faraz Ibn Adam
Leicester, UK
Student Darul Iftaa


[1]  و قال في شرح المجمع: الجناية هي الفعل المحظور الذي يتضمن الضرر ( البحر العميق، ج 2، ص 789، الريان)

فالتي توجب دما هي ما لو طيب محرم بالغ عضوا، أو خضب رأسه بحناء أو ادهن بزيت و نحوه او لبس مخيطا او ستر راسه يوما كاملا او حلق راسه او محجمه او احد ابطيه او عانته او رقبته او قص اظفار يديه و رجليه بمجلس او يدا او رجلا او ترك واجبا مما تقدم بيانه و فب اخذ ساربه حكومة ( مراقي الفلاح، باب الجنايات، ص 427، دار الطباع)

[2]  و ينبغي لولي من احرم من الصبيان ان يجرده و يغسله و يلبسه ثوبين ازارا و رداء و يجنبه ما يجتنب المحرم في احرامه فان فعل شيئا من محظورات الاحرام فلا شيء عليه و لا علي وليه لاجله لان الصبي غير مخاطب ( جامع احكام الصغار، ج 1، ص 64، الفضيلة)

Cutting before Going for Hajj-E-Ifrad

I am gong to haj from riyadh on 8th of zilhajj and i want to perform hajj e ifrad ,i want to know that can i cut my unwanted hairs and nails on 5th zilhajj before going for hajj?


In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

It is permissible for one to cut one’s unwanted hairs and nails before donning the Ihraam for Hajj.[1]

However, The Fuqahaa (Jurists) have mentioned that it is Mustahab for one doing Qurbani to abstain from cutting one’s nails and hair during the first ten days of Dhul Hijjah.

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best                                       

Ismail Desai,
Student Darul Iftaa
Durban, South Africa

Checked and Concurred by,
Moulana Abdul Azeem Bin Abdul Rahmaan

Student Darul Iftaa


Mussafir or Muqeem

I reached Makkah on 5th Zil-hijjah and had intention to stay for 25 days after Haj. Please explain whether I would be considered as 'musafir' or 'muqeem' in Mina, Muzdalfa and Arafat during Haj and would I offer qasr prayers or in full? I affered zuhr and Asr prayers in Masjid Khaif (Mina) and the imam offered qasr prayers. Should I have completed 4 rakats in this case? Please explain logic behind your answer (as per hanafi fiqh) since there was a lot of confusion on this issue?


I reached Makkah on 5th Zil-hijjah and had intention to stay for 25 days after Haj. Please explain whether I would be considered as 'musafir' or 'muqeem' in Mina, Muzdalfa and Arafat during Haj and would I offer qasr prayers or in full? I affered zuhr and Asr prayers in Masjid Khaif (Mina) and the imam offered qasr prayers. Should I have completed 4 rakats in this case? Please explain logic behind your answer (as per hanafi fiqh) since there was a lot of confusion on this issue?


In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

As a principle, it is important to understand that if an individual qualifies as Muqeem (temporary resident) in a particular city, then he must perform his Salāh in full in his temporary residence and also in the surrounding cities that are situated within Masāfah al-Safar (distance that qualifies an individual as a Musāfir) of his temporary residence.[1]

Based on the aforementioned, if an individual stays in Makkah Mukarramah for 15 days or more prior to his departure to Mina, then he will be considered a Muqeem in Makkah. Therefore, he will perform his Salāh in full in Mina, Arafah, and Muzdalifah since they are in close proximity to Makkah Mukarramah. However, if an individual stays in Makkah Mukarramah for less than 15 days prior to leaving to Mina, he will be considered a Musāfir in Makkah Mukarramah. Hence, he will shorten his prayers (Qasr) in Mina, Arafah and Muzdalifah unless he performs Salāh behind a local resident.[2] This ruling is based on the opinion that Mina, Arafah, and Muzdalifah are not part of Makkah Mukarramah.

If the Imām in Masjid al-Khaif or Masjid al-Namirah is a Muqīm and he performs only two Rak’āt for Dhuhr and two Rak’āt for Asr (based on their Madhab of Qasr for Haj), then the obligation of Salāh for the Hanafī followers is not fulfilled.[3]

In such a situation, one should investigate whether the Imām is a Musāfir or a Muqīm. In the case he is a Muqīm or it is unknown[4], the Hanafī followers should not follow such an Imām. However, if a Hanafī follower did perform Salāh behind the Imām, the Salāh will be considered Nafl and he would have to perform the Fardh Salāh afterwards.

Note: The Darul Iftaa’s view is that Mina is a separate place and is not part of Makkah Mukarramah. There is however a difference of opinion between competent Muftis in this regard. Our advice to you is that you choose a reliable Mufti and seek all Hajj related verdicts only from him. This will protect you from further confusion.  

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Abdul Azīm bin Abdur Rahman,
Student Darul Iftaa

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.





The Darul Iftaa has received queries regarding Mufti Ebrahim Desai Saheb’s teaching and affiliation with Madrassah In’aamiyya, Camperdown. The confusion is probably due to the previous Fatawaa and Google searches of Mufti Ebrahim Desai Saheb issued under the name of Darul Iftaa, Madrassah In’aamiyyah, Camperdown.


Mufti Ebrahim Desai Saheb has resigned from Madrassah In’aamiyya two years ago and has no affiliation with Madrassah In’aamiyya, Camperdown.


Mufti Saheb has established the Darul Iftaa in Durban that facilitates for post-Ulama courses and training Mufti’s. He teaches Hadeeth at Darul Uloom Nu’maniyyah.


Email: or 





[1]  أَقُولُ: وَيُوَضِّحُ ذَلِكَ مَا فِي الْكَافِي والتتارخانية: خُرَاسَانِيٌّ قَدِمَ بَغْدَادَ لِيُقِيمَ بِهَا نِصْفَ شَهْرٍ وَمَكِّيٌّ قَدِمَ الْكُوفَةَ كَذَلِكَ ثُمَّ خَرَجَ كُلٌّ مِنْهُمَا إلَى قَصْرِ ابْنِ هُبَيْرَةَ فَإِنَّهُمَا يُتِمَّانِ فِي طَرِيقِ الْقَصْرِ لِأَنَّ مِنْ بَغْدَادَ إلَى الْكُوفَةِ أَرْبَعَةُ أَيَّامٍ وَالْقَصْرُ مُتَوَسِّطٌ بَيْنَهُمَا (رد المحتار، ج 2، ص 132، سعيد)


[2]  (قَوْلُهُ لَا بِمَكَّةَ وَمِنًى) أَيْ لَوْ نَوَى الْإِقَامَةَ بِمَكَّةَ خَمْسَةَ عَشَرَ يَوْمًا فَإِنَّهُ لَا يُتِمُّ الصَّلَاةَ؛ لِأَنَّ الْإِقَامَةَ لَا تَكُونُ فِي مَكَانَيْنِ إذْ لَوْ جَازَتْ فِي مَكَانَيْنِ لَجَازَتْ فِي أَمَاكِنَ فَيُؤَدِّي إلَى أَنَّ السَّفَرَ لَا يَتَحَقَّقُ (البحر الرائق، ج 2، ص 132، سعيد)

أَنَّهُ إذَا نَوَى الْإِقَامَةَ بِمَكَّةَ شَهْرًا وَمِنْ نِيَّتِهِ أَنْ يَخْرُجَ إلَى عَرَفَاتٍ وَمِنًى قَبْلَ أَنْ يَمْكُثَ بِمَكَّةَ خَمْسَةَ عَشَرَ يَوْمًا لَا يَصِيرُ مُقِيمًا (منحة الخالق، ج 2، ص 132، سعيد)


فتاوى محمودية، ج 10، ص 369-370، فاروقية

كتاب الفتاوى، ج 4، ص 105، زمزم


[3]  لَكِنْ لَوْ كَانَ مُقِيمًا كَإِمَامِ مَكَّةَ صَلَّى بِهِمْ صَلَاةَ الْمُقِيمِينَ، وَلَا يَجُوزُ لَهُ الْقَصْرُ وَلَا لِلْحُجَّاجِ الِاقْتِدَاءُ بِهِ قَالَ الْإِمَامُ الْحَلْوَانِيُّ: كَانَ الْإِمَامُ النَّسَفِيُّ يَقُولُ الْعَجَبُ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْمَوْقِفِ يُتَابِعُونَ إمَامَ مَكَّةَ فِي الْقَصْرِ فَأَنَّى يُسْتَجَابُ لَهُمْ أَوْ يُرْجَى لَهُمْ الْخَيْرُ وَصَلَاتُهُمْ غَيْرُ جَائِزَةٍ. قَالَ شَمْسُ الْأَئِمَّةِ: كُنْت مَعَ أَهْلِ الْمَوْقِفِ فَاعْتَزَلْت، وَصَلَّيْت كُلَّ صَلَاةٍ فِي وَقْتِهَا وَأَوْصَيْت بِذَلِكَ أَصْحَابِي، وَقَدْ سَمِعْنَا أَنَّهُ يَتَكَلَّفُ وَيَخْرُجُ مَسِيرَةَ سَفَرٍ ثُمَّ يَأْتِي عَرَفَاتٍ، فَلَوْ كَانَ هَكَذَا فَالْقَصْرُ جَائِزٌ وَإِلَّا فَيَجِبُ الِاحْتِيَاطُ اهـ مُلَخَّصًا مِنْ التَّتَارْخَانِيَّة عَنْ الْمُحِيطِ (رد المحتار، ج 2، ص 505، سعيد)

فتاوى حقانية، ج 3، ص 359


[4]  ذَكَرَ فِي الْبَحْرِ عَنْ الْمَبْسُوطِ وَالْقُنْيَةِ مَا حَاصِلُهُ: أَنَّهُ إذَا صَلَّى فِي مِصْرٍ أَوْ قَرْيَةٍ رَكْعَتَيْنِ، وَهُمْ لَا يَدْرُونَ حاله فَصَلَاتُهُمْ فَاسِدَةٌ وَإِنْ كَانُوا مُسَافِرِينَ لِأَنَّ الظَّاهِرَ مِنْ حَالِ مَنْ كَانَ فِي مَوْضِعِ الْإِقَامَةِ أَنَّهُ مُقِيمٌ وَالْبِنَاءُ عَلَى الظَّاهِرِ وَاجِبٌ حَتَّى يَتَبَيَّنَ خِلَافُهُ، أَمَّا إذَا صَلَّى خَارِجَ الْمِصْرِ لَا تَفْسُدُ، وَيَجُوزُ الْأَخْذُ بِالظَّاهِرِ وَهُوَ السَّفَرُ فِي مِثْلِهِ. اهـ.

وَالْحَاصِلُ أَنَّهُ يُشْتَرَطُ الْعِلْمُ بِحَالِ الْإِمَامِ إذَا صَلَّى بِهِمْ رَكْعَتَيْنِ فِي مَوْضِعِ إقَامَةٍ وَإِلَّا فَلَا. (رد المحتار، ج 2، ص 129-130، سعيد)

فتاوى حقانية، ج 3، ص 358-359


Who can bear the Hajj Expense?

My parents are old and not working can i pay for they hajj?

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu `alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh. 

It is permissible to pay for the Hajj of your parents. However, if you have sufficient funds and did not perform your Hajj, Hajj will become compulsory upon you.[i]

And Allah knows best. 

Mawlana Saeed Ahmed Golaub
Westmoreland, Jamaica, West Indies
Student Darul Iftaa

Checked and Approved 
Mufti Ebrahim Desai

To whom Hajj Fardh

Is Hajj compulsory or Fardh for a woman who has such an amount of gold that Zakaat becomes Fardh upon her and she can cover Hajj expenses?


In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

You state that you do have sufficient wealth to cover your Hajj expenses; therefore Hajj is obligatory on you.


However, you would have to be accompanied by a Mahram when making the journey for Hajj.


And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Ismail Desai,

Durban, South Africa

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.



Various Ways to Perform Hajj

When choosing a Hajj Group and which package to go on, you may notice that different packages have different Hajj methods, depending on the group and one's preference of performance. In this section, will explain the three ways one can perform Hajj so that people are more acquainted with the methods before choosing a package. More detail will be given by each Hajj group before the journey.


Three Different Methods


  1. Tamattu` - means performing Umrah during the Hajj season before the hajj starts. Therefore, it is necessary to get into the state of Ihram twice; once for Umrah on their entrance to Makkah, and the other on the 8th day of Dhul-Hijjah known as the day of Tarwiyah. The pilgrim who performs Hajj Tamattu' should make intention for `Umrah when approaching the Miqat. The pilgrim should say, 

    "Labbayk-Allahumma labbayka bi'Umrah!" or "Labbayka 'Umratan!" "O Allah! I answer Your call to perform `Umrah." 

    The pilgrim can add some other dua such as: " O Allah! I intend to perform `Umrah, so make it easy for me, and accept it from me." It is also allowed for the pilgrim, though intending initially to complete Hajj or 'Umrah, to put a condition whereby if for some unexpected sickness or circumstances the journey could not be completed, he, or she, can end the state of Ihraam without having to sacrifice an animal or fast. Therefore, the pilgrim can address Allah saying, 

    "Inna mahilli minal-Ardi haythu habastani" "I will end up my state of Ihraam wherever I cannot proceed." 

    After this, the pilgrim proceeds with Talbiyah as shown in the previous section. Once the pilgrim reaches Makkah, he heads for al-Masjid al-Haraam and starts his Tawwaf. After Tawwaf, the pilgrim prays two Rak'aas at Maqaamu Ibraahim - without disturbing those who circumambulate- drinks Zamzam water then proceeds with the Say'ee. With this the state of Ihraam and 'Umrah are ended. On the day of Tarwiyah, the pilgrim enters another time in the state of Ihraam saying, 

    " Labbayk-Allahumma labbayka bi-Hajj!" or "Labbayka Hajjan" "O Allah! I answer Your call to perform Hajj." 

    The pilgrim can add, "O Allah! I intend to perform Hajj, so make it easy for me, and accept it from me. I intend to perform Hajj and I am entering in the state of Ihram only for Your sake, O Allah!" Then the Talbiyah is repeated throughout the rituals of Hajj in Mina, Arafah, and Muzdalifah. On the 10th of dhul-Hijjah, a sacrifice should be offered to Allah as mentioned in Qur'an after stoning at al-Jamaraat. After the sacrifice is done, the pilgrim can shave or cut the hair. The pilgrim then proceeds back to Mekkah and performs the Tawwaf of Ifaadah. Once the Tawaaf of Ifaadah is completed, the pilgrim should perform Say'ee for Hajj. However, if a person starts with the Tawaaf of Ifaadah, then Say'ee, then shaves, and then stones at al-Jamaraat, it is also accepted. Hajj Tamattu' is the most recommended for people and it was more encouraged by the Prophet (S). Therefore, it is known as the best way to perform Hajj and is indeed the most common amongst the Hajj groups.
  2. Qiran - means to combine Hajj and Umrah. This means that the pilgrim should declare the intention to perform both Hajj and `Umrah together, and say: 

    "Labbayk-Allahumma labbayka bi-Hajjin wa-'Umrah!" or "Labbayka Hajjan wa 'Umratan!" "O Allah! I answer Your call to perform Hajj and 'Umrah!" 

    In this kind of Hajj, it is not allowed for the pilgrim to end the state of Ihraam after Say'ee. The pilgrim will not have to perform the Tawwaf of Ifaadah and Say'ee on the 10th of dhul Hijjah because it is already performed for both Hajj and `Umrah. The pilgrim is supposed to bring his sacrificial animal with him as the Prophet (S) did. This must be done because the rituals of Hajj and `Umrah were joined together. Some groups will have Hajj Qiran as an option for the pilgrims to perform.
  3. Ifraad - means that the pilgrim declares his intention for Hajj only, and says: 

    " Labbayk-Allahumma labbayka bi-Hajj!" or " Labbayka Hajjan" "O Allah! I answer Your call to perform Hajj." The pilgrim maintains his Ihraam up to the Day of Sacrifice. No animal sacrifice offering is required from him. Many Hajj groups have Hajj Ifraad available as the express package since it is the quickest of the three.

For more information on the three methods of performing Hajj, please consult the group leaders for your Hajj group insha'Allah.

Pillars of Hajj

Now that we have discussed the virtues, conditions, and significance of Hajj; it is critical to move on to the pillars of the blessed journey. Whatever Hajj group you choose to go with, they will indeed have a leader that will explain the pillars of Hajj, but we at have summarized the four main pillars of the journey. We hope that you find this information beneficial and easy to comprehend, inshaAllah.


The Pillars


  1. Ihram - The first pillar of Hajj is the state of Ihram. Although, the word Ihram is often referred to as the two pieces of white cloth that men wear while doing Hajj and Umrah, it is more than that. Ihram is actually a state one is in while performing the rituals of Hajj and Umrah. The dress of Ihram just represents the state that one is in; two unstitched cloths for men, and regular loose clothing for women. However, it is important to note that the pilgrim is allowed to bathe and use the washroom as they require so the Ihram may be removed and put back on for such circumstances. The key element to the Ihram is to make the intention of Ihram, after taking a bath and praying two raka'h of prayers. Once the intention is made, and the necessary clothing are put on, one must adhere to the following rules:
    1. Recite the Talbiyyah saying: 

      "Labbayka-Allahummma labbayk, Labbayka laa shareeka laka labbayk. Innal-Hamda wanni'mata laka wal-Mulk, laa shareeka lak!" 

      "Here I am O Allah! Here I am! Here I am, there is no partner for you, here I am! Surely, all praise, blessings, and dominion are for You. There is no partner for you!" 

      It is recommended to keep repeating the Talbiyah occasionally on the way to Makkah especially after prayers or when meeting other pilgrims or when ascending and descending...etc.
    2. The pilgrim should avoid arguing, slandering, acting without humility and decency, and harming others with the hands and the tongue. Allah, the Almighty, says, 

      "For Hajj are the months well-known. If any one undertakes that duty therein, let there be no obscenity, nor wickedness, nor wrangling in the Hajj and whatever good you do, (be sure) Allah knows it." (2:198).
    3. The pilgrim is also restricted from showing love and affection to his/her spouse while in Ihram, which could lead to intercourse. The unmarried pilgrim is restricted from getting married or asking for someone's hand in marriage while in Ihram.
    4. It is undesirable to joke around in the state of Ihram, since the pilgrim should be reciting the Talbiyah and submit themselves to Allah (SWT).
    5. Shaving or cutting hair from any part of the body, clipping the nails of the fingers or the toe, and wearing or even touching perfume are all forbidden acts while in Ihram.
    6. Men are not allowed to cover their heads by anything except for an umbrella provided that it does not touch the head or wearing seamed and perfumed clothes, socks and shoes. Women may wear socks. Both, men and women are permitted to wear a watch, or glasses on their face.
    7. It is not permissible to hunt, kill, or harm animals unless they are harmful insects such as lice, fleas, beetles and also ants if they stick to the body. It is better to throw them away, but if they represent a harm and disturbance they can be killed. Harmful and dangerous animals can only be killed if they become a threat to one's life such as snakes, scorpions, rats, desert crows and any dangerous wild animals or birds.
  2. Tawwaf - The second pillar of Hajj is Tawwaf. Tawwaf is the action of circuiting and circumambulating seven times around the Ka'bah in an anti-clockwise direction. Allah Almighty says, "Then let them complete the rites prescribed for them, perform their vows, and (again) circumambulate the Ancient House." (22:29). In order to have the Tawwaf properly completed one must adhere to the following:
    1. Make intention for Tawaaf as an act of obedience dedicated to Allah alone.
    2. Cleanliness with Wudu as for prayer.
    3. Covering 'Awrah - private parts - for both men and women. Anything, which is considered a 'Awrah cannot be displayed otherwise the Tawwaf becomes null.
    4. Tawaaf should be inside al-Masjid al-Haraam.
    5. The number of rounds should be exactly seven beginning from the Black Stone and ending at it. These rounds should be continued without interruption except in the case of an extreme necessity.
    The following are some desirable sunnah acts while performing the Tawwaf:
    1. Performing the first three rounds hastily, almost jogging for men who are capable of doing so, and if the circumstances permit it. Do not try this if there are way too many people around.
    2. Uncover the right shoulder for men, and place the cloth underneath the armpit.
    3. Kissing the Black Stone in the beginning of Tawwaf if possible. Otherwise, if it's impossible to touch it or because the pilgrim fears harming others by pushing them, it is better to raise the hands to make Istilaam - salutation - to the Black Stone starting Tawwaf by saying,

      "Bismillahi w-Allahu Akbar! Allahumma Imaanan bika wa-tasdeeqan bikitaabika wa-Wafaa'an bi'ahdika wat-Tibaa'an lisunnati Nabiyyika Muhammadin Salla Allahu 'alayhe was-Sallam" 

      "In the Name of Allah, Allah is The Greatest! O Allah I have faith in You, I believe in Your Book, I am fulfilling the promise made to You, and following the Sunnah of Your Prophet (S)".
    4. The pilgrim can make a lot of dhikr such as: 

      "Subhaana Allah wal-Hamdu-lillah wa-Laa ilaaha ill-Allah w-Allahu Akbar walaa Hawla walaa Quwwata illaa billaahi!" 

      "Glory be to Allah! All Praise is due to Allah! There is no god except Allah! Allah is the Greatest! There is no Power or strength except with Allah!" 

      There are not specific du'aas for circumambulating. However, the best thing to say is the word of Allah; the pilgrim can recite without disturbing the others some chapters of the Qur'an he, or she, memorizes.
    5. When the pilgrim passes by the Rokn al-Yamaani - the fourth corner of the Ka'abah right before the black stone corner - it is good that he, or she, touches it with the hand if possible in every round, and then recite the following dua until they reach back to the black stone: 

      "Rabbanaa Aatinaa fid-Duniaah Hasanatan wafil-Aakhirati Hasanatan waqinaa 'adhaaban-Naar" 

      "Our Lord! Give us good in this world and good in the Hereafter, and protect us from the torment of the Fire!" (2:201).
    6. Being in a state of serenity, concentration, and humbleness. The pilgrim should avoid harming others and should also refrain from talking to others unless it is necessary.
    7. Making dua after finishing Tawaaf at the Multazam - the spot between the Black Stone and the Ka'bah's door. Praying 2 Rak'aas behind the Maqaam -station- of Ibraaheem (A), then drinking from Zamzam water in three sequences while having the intention to be cured with the blessing of Allah from any disease and facing Qiblah. The pilgrim can make the following du'aa: 

      Allahumma inni as'aluka 'ilman naafi'an wa-rizqan waasi'an was-shifaa'a min kulli dhaa'in wa saqam!" 

      "O Allah! I beseech You to bless me with a useful knowledge, a generous subsistence, and a cure from any ailment and disease!"
    8. Finally going back to the Black Stone and salute it before leaving to Safa and Marwaa for Say'ee.
  3. Say'ee - The third pillar of Hajj is the Say'ee which is the walking between mount safa and marwa. Although the history of such a noble act is very rich and enlightening to know, will only look at the required acts in this section. Further information should be studied under your leader/teacher. 

    Describing the Hajj performed by the Prophet (S), Jabir (r) narrated, "Then, he - the Prophet (S) - got out from the door heading for As-Safaa, then, recited the above Qur'anic aayah: "Innas-Safaa wal-Marwata min Sha'aa'iril-Laah. Faman hajjal-Bayta awi'atamara falaa junaaha 'alayhi an yattawwafa bihimaa. Waman tattawwa'a khayran fa'inna Allaha Shaakirun 'Aleem."(2:158) 

    Then, he (S) said, "We begin with what Allah began." Then, he mounted as--Safaa until he faced the House and there he glorified Allah (i.e. raised his voice) saying "Allahu Akbar!" three times then" Laa ilaaha illa Allah wahdahu laa shareeka lah. Lahul-Mulku walahul- Hamdu wa huwa 'alaa kulli shay'in Qadeer. Laa ilaaha illa Allahu wahdahu, Sadaqa Wa'adahu, wa nasara 'abadahu wa hazamal-Ahzaaba wahdah!." 

    "There is no god but Allah. He is One and has no partner, to Him is the dominion and all praise is due to Him. We are returning, repenting, worshipping, prostrating, and to Allah we are very grateful. Allah is true to His promise, He gave victory to His servant and defeated the confederates all by Himself." 

    Habibah bint Abi Taghrah (r) heard the Prophet (S) saying to his companions, 

    "Perform Say'ee for Allah Almighty has ordained it upon you." [Ahmad]. 

    In order to have the Say'ee properly completed one must adhere to the following:
    1. Being after Tawwaf not before and make proper intention for beginning the Say'ee
    2. Continue doing the Say'ee without interruption except when it is extremely necessary.
    3. Stand on as-Safaa and al-Marwa by going back and forth seven times- 4 stops at each hill - and make the above-mentioned du'aa facing Qiblah.
    The following are some desirable sunnah acts while performing the Tawwaf:
    1. Khabab, which is fast walking that is closer to running, between the two green signs on the sides of the way as Haajar (A) did and as it is recorded about the Prophet (S).
    2. Making dhikr and du'aa or reading Qur'an.
    3. To be clean and have Wudu is recommended but not compulsory as in Tawwaf
    4. To walk unless the pilgrim is weak.
    5. To lower the gaze and abstain from talking to others, harming others, and try to be humble and serene and to remember the Day of Judgement.
  4. Arafah - The fourth pillar of Hajj is Arafah, which known as the Big Day of hajj and is on th 9th of dhul hijja. The Prohet (S) said: "Hajj is 'Arafah." [Ahmad and at-Tirmidhi]. The pilgrim must be at 'Arafaat on the ninth of dhil Hijjah after Dhuhr time. Anyone, who misses Arafaat day, his, or her, Hajj is void. All the scholars said in consensus that this pillar is the most important one. The Prophet said, "Hajj is only valid by attending `Arafah." [At-Tirmidhi, an-Nassaa'i, Abu Dawud, Malek and ad-Daarimi]. In order to have the Arafah properly completed one must adhere to the following:
    1. Going to Arafaat on the 9th of dhul-Hijjah: After Sunrise on the 9th, the pilgrim can head for 'Arafaat through the road of Dabb making Talbiyah and dhikr. Once the pilgrim prays at Masjid Namirah Dhuhr and 'Asr combined and shortened with the Imam - if possible - he, or she, goes to the Mawqif where the standing is valid because Namirah mosque is not fully a part of 'Arafaat. Standing means to be present there and it does not mean that the pilgrim is not allowed to sit down and rest.
    2. The presence in Arafaat on the 9th of dhul-Hijjah between Dhuhr and Maghrib is essential.
    3. Sleeping in Muzdalifah after spending the day in 'Arafaat.
    4. Throwing pebbles at Jamrat al-'Aqabah on the 10th day of dhil-Hijjah.
    5. Shaving off the hair of the head or cutting some of it after the stoning at Jamrat al-'Aqabah. After this, the pilgrim ends his state of Ihraam and can wear regular clothes and put perfume and clip the nails…etc, but intimate intercourse is not allowed until the Ifaadah Tawaaf is performed.
    6. Sleeping on the eve of the 11th, the eve of the 12th, and the eve of the 13th. If the pilgrim has to leave, the eves of the 11th and the 12th would be enough.
    7. Throwing pebbles at the three Jamaraats after Dhuhr of every day of Tashreeq: 11-12-13.

Many Hajj groups recommend doing extra acts of worship during the day of Arafah, and the final days of Hajj, since indeed these are the most significant days in the entire journey.